Result objects are wrapper objects that indicate whether or not the API call was a success and, if successful, include the requested data.

note

API calls that don't have validations, such as searches, will return a collection of requested objects instead of a result object.

Success results

If the API call was successful, the IsSuccess() on the result will return true.

C♯
bool success = result.IsSuccess();
Transaction transaction = result.Target;

Generics are used to preserve static typing of the resource objects. The target will be an instance of the requested resource class.

C♯
Result<Customer> customerResult = gateway.Customer.Create(new CustomerRequest());
Customer customer = customerResult.Target;

Result<Transaction> transactionResult = gateway.Transaction.Sale(
    new TransactionRequest()
);
Transaction transaction = transactionResult.Target;

Error results

If the API call was not successful, the success on the result will return false. An error may be due to:

C♯
if (!result.IsSuccess())
{
    ValidationErrors errors = result.Errors;
}

The Errors result object will only be populated if the error is due to a failed validation. In this case, the object will contain one or more validation errors indicating which parameters were invalid:

C♯
var request = new CustomerRequest
{
    Email = "invalid_email",
    CreditCard = new CreditCardRequest
    {
        Number = "not_numeric"
    }
};
Result<Customer> result = gateway.Customer.Create(request);

foreach (ValidationError error in result.Errors.DeepAll()) {
    Console.WriteLine(error.Attribute);
    Console.WriteLine(error.Code);
    Console.WriteLine(error.Message);
}

var customerErrors = result.Errors.ForObject("Customer");
foreach (ValidationError error in customerErrors.All()) {
    Console.WriteLine(error.Attribute);
    Console.WriteLine(error.Code);
    Console.WriteLine(error.Message);
}

var creditCardErrors = customerErrors.ForObject("CreditCard");
foreach (ValidationError error in creditCardErrors.All()) {
    Console.WriteLine(error.Attribute);
    Console.WriteLine(error.Code);
    Console.WriteLine(error.Message);
}

For details on transaction error results, see the transaction response object.

Message

The message on the error result gives a human-readable description of what went wrong, regardless of the cause and nature of the error.

C♯
Console.WriteLine(result.Message)
// "Amount is required.\nCredit card number is invalid."

The message can contain multiple error messages.

note

This was added in version 2.5.0

Params

Error results include the parameters that were submitted. This can be useful during Transparent Redirects to repopulate your form if validations fail.

C♯
foreach (var param in result.Parameters) {
    Console.WriteLine(param.Key + "=" + param.Value);
}
// transaction[type]=sale
// transaction[amount]=1000
// transaction[credit_card][expiration_date]=05/2012

For PCI compliance reasons, credit card number and cvv parameters are not included.

See also